Tangential displacement in DEM


I am working on DEM module in Dualsphysics currently and I am curious on how DualSPHysics calculates the tangential displacement (delta_t) . Please see Equation (70) below:

I obtained the following equation from the DualSPHysics online manual:


Can anyone shed some lights on how to compute tangential displacement (delta_t) in DualSPHysics? I am wondering whether it is calculated using the incremental approach?


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